Tsr company

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Description: TSR, Inc. was an American game publishing company and the publisher of Dungeons & Dragons ( D&D ). When Gary Gygax could not find a publisher for D&D . a new type of game he and

TSR, Inc. was an American game publishing company and the publisher of Dungeons & Dragons (D&D ).

When Gary Gygax could not find a publisher for D&D. a new type of game he and Dave Arneson were co-developing, Gygax and Don Kaye founded Tactical Studies Rules in October, 1973, to self-publish their products. [ 1 ] However, needing immediate financing to bring their new game to market before several similar competing products were released, Gygax and Kaye brought in Brian Blume in December as an equal partner. [ 1 ] When Kaye unexpectedly died in 1975, the Tactical Studies Rules partnership restructured into TSR Hobbies, Inc. and accepted investment from Blume's father Melvin. [ 2 ] With the now popular D&D as its main product, TSR Hobbies became a major force in the games industry by the late 1970s. Melvin Blume eventually transferred his shares to his other son Kevin, making the two Blume brothers the largest shareholders in TSR Hobbies.

Tactical Studies Rules (TSR) was formed in 1973 as a partnership between Gary Gygax and Don Kaye. who collected together $2,400 for startup costs, [ 3 ] to formally publish and sell the rules of D&D. one of the first modern role-playing games (RPG). They first published Cavaliers and Roundheads . a miniature game. to start generating income for TSR. The partnership was subsequently joined by Brian Blume and (temporarily) by Dave Arneson. Blume was admitted to the partnership to fund publishing of D&D instead of waiting for Cavaliers and Roundheads to bring in enough revenue. [ 4 ] In the original configuration of the partnership, Kaye served as President, Blume as Vice-President and Gygax as Editor. [ 1 ]

In 1974, TSR (with Kaye's basement as a headquarters) produced 1,000 copies of D&D. selling them for $10 each and the extra dice needed for another $3.50. [ 3 ] In January 1975, TSR printed a second 1,000 copies of D&D. which took only another five or six months to sell out. [ 5 ] Also in 1974, TSR published Warriors of Mars . a miniatures rules book set in the fantasy world of Barsoom. originally imagined by Edgar Rice Burroughs in his series of novels about John Carter of Mars. to which Gygax paid homage in the "Preface" of the first edition of D&D. However, Gygax and TSR published the Mars book without permission from (or payment to) the Burroughs estate. and soon after a cease and desist order was issued and Warriors was pulled from distribution. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] In 1975, TSR published Blume's Panzer Warfare . a World War II based miniature wargaming set of rules for use with 1:285 scale micro armour .

At its inception, TSR sold its products directly to customers, shipped to game shops and hobby stores and wholesaled only to three distributors that were manufacturers of miniatures figurines. [ 8 ] In 1975, TSR picked up one or two regular distributors. [ 8 ] The next year, TSR joined the Hobby Industry Association of America and began exhibiting at their annual trade show, and began to establish a regular network of distributors. [ 8 ]

When Don Kaye died of a heart attack on January 31, 1975, his role was taken over by his wife Donna Kaye, who remained responsible for accounting, shipping and the records of the partnership through the summer. [ 9 ] By the summer of 1975, those duties became complex enough that Gygax himself became a full-time employee of the partnership in order to take them over from Donna Kaye. [ 9 ] Arneson also entered the partnership in order to coordinate research and design with his circle in the Twin Cities. [ 9 ]

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