American indian wars

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Description: American Indian Wars is the name used in the United States to describe the multiple conflicts...

American Indian Wars is the name used in the United States to describe the multiple conflicts between American settlers or the federal government and the native peoples of North America from the time of earliest colonial settlement until approximately 1890. The wars resulted as the arrival of European colonists continuously led to population pressure as settlers expanded their territory, generally pushing indigenous people westward. Many conflicts were local, involving disputes over land use, and some entailed cycles of reprisal. Particularly in later years, conflicts were spurred by ideologies such as Manifest Destiny. which held that the United States was destined to expand from coast to coast on the American continent. A main driver of many of these conflicts was the policy of Indian removal. which was a planned, large scale removal of indigenous peoples from the areas where Europeans were settling, either by armed conflict or through sale or exchange of territory through treaties.

On the 2010 census 0.9 percent of the U.S. population identified themselves as being Native American (or Alaskan Native). [1] No conclusive evidence exists to determine how many native people lived in North America before the arrival of Columbus. [2] [3]

As the direct result of disease, wars between tribes, wars with Europeans, migration to Canada and Mexico, declining birth rates, and of assimilation, the numbers of Native Americans dropped to below one million in the 19th century. Scholars believe that the main causes were new infectious diseases carried by Europeans explorers and traders. Native Americans had no acquired immunity to such diseases, which had been chronic in Eurasian populations for over five centuries. [4] For instance, some estimates indicate case fatality rates of 80–90% in Native American populations during smallpox epidemics. [5]

According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894), "The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians." [6]

From 1600 or so the process of English settlement was contested by some tribes. The wars, which ranged from the 17th-century Jamestown Massacre of 1622, Pequot War of 1637, Anglo-Powhatan Wars (1610–14, 1622–32, 1644–46), King Philip's War. King William's War. During the 18th-century, there was Queen Anne's War. Tuscarora War. Yamasee War and Father Rale's War. King George's War. Father Le Loutre's War. French and Indian War. Pontiac's War and Lord Dunmore's War. In many of these wars, Native Americans fought both for and against the British. In the American Revolution and the War of 1812, Indians also fought for and against the United States, prompting retaliations such as the Cherokee Expedition. The contributions of those who fought for the United States, who were part of the founders of the nation, are often rendered invisible. [7]

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