MAN 11190 Hocl

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Keywords: MAN 11190 Hocl
Description: Mahmood Ahmad 1,2 Emmanuel Selvaraj 3 Ramachandran Meenakshisundaram 4 1 Tahir Heart Institute, Rabwah, Pakistan 2 Darent Valley Hospital, Dartford and Gravesham NHS Trust, Dartford,

    Mahmood Ahmad 1,2 Emmanuel Selvaraj 3 Ramachandran Meenakshisundaram 4
    1 Tahir Heart Institute, Rabwah, Pakistan 2 Darent Valley Hospital, Dartford and Gravesham NHS Trust, Dartford, United Kingdom 3 London Chest Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom 4 Epsom and St. Helier University Hospitals NHS Trust, Epsom, United Kingdom

Tobacco smoking, with its wide variety of constituents, has a multitude of effects on the cardiovascular system, ranging from endothelial dysfunction, increased thrombosis, increased atherosclerosis, damage to coronary artery vessels, arrhythmias, coronary artery spasm, and heart failure. Smoking causes endothelial dysfunction through reduction in the nitric oxide level and damage to the endothelium. Oxygen radicals are released by cigarette smoking and cause increased atherosclerosis through a number of pathways. Smoking causes increased levels of prothrombotic factors, such as tissue factor (TF) and von Willebrand factor (VWF), which cause increased platelet adhesion and increased thrombotic effects through a number of pathway modulations. It is well known that smoking causes dyslipidemia. There are significantly increased rates of atherosclerosis in patients who smoke due to a number of mechanisms such as smoking’s effect on inflammatory factors and macrophages. It also causes increased angiogenesis, increased red cell mass, and higher levels of leucocytes. Smoking causes increased arterial stiffness and subsequent hypertension. The main risk factor for coronary artery spasm is also smoking. In addition, it predisposes individuals to increased left ventricular dysfunction and higher rates of ventricular tachycardia in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Also, smoking increases mortality as a result of impaired left ventricular function. Other forms of tobacco exposure, such as smokeless or chewing tobacco, have been used and found to have varying levels of cardiovascular risk. In addition, passive smoking is considered to be a significant risk factor for coronary artery disease. There are a number of methods that can be adopted for smoking cessation such as the use of nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, patches, and counseling sessions.



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